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The Washington Log Trucking Industry:
Costs and Safety Analysis



Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety. Fact sheet: truck driver fatigue, 2001.

Allen, B.J., T.H. Maze and Clyde K. Walter. 1993. Intrastate trucking deregulation: have both the negative and positive impacts been overstated?. Transportation Journal. 33. 1:30-40.

American Automobile Association (AAA). 2008. American Automobile Association Daily Fuel Gauge.  

Ang-Olson, J. and W. Schroeer. 2002. Energy efficiency strategies for freight trucking: potential impact on fuel use and green house gas emissions. In: Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. WA. D.C.

Arnold, P.K., L.R. Hartley, D. Hochstadt, and F. Penna. 1997. Hours of work, and perceptions
of fatigue among truck drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 29 (4) 471–77.

Arola, L. 1972. SI-100 electronic weighting systems. Loggers Handbook Vol. 32. Pacific Logging Congress. Portland, OR.

Balkin, T., D. Thome, H. Sing, M. Thomas, D. Redmond, N. Wesensten, J. Williams, S. Hall, and G. Belenky. 2000. Effects of sleep schedules on commercial motor vehicle driver performance. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. FMSCA Report No. DOT-MC-00-133.

Belman, D.L. and K.A. Monaco. 2001. The effects of deregulation, de-unionization, technology, and human capital on the work and work lives of truck drivers. Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 54. 2A:502-524.

Blower, D. 1998. The relative contribution of truck drivers and passenger vehicle drivers to truck-passenger vehicle traffic crashes. Pub. No. UMTRI-98-25. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Ann Arbor, MI.

Bonagofsky, J. 2007-2008. Personal communication. Jerry Bonagofsky is the Director of the Washington Contract Loggers Association (WCLA). Tacoma, WA.

Brouwer, W.H., W. Waterink, P.C. van Wolffelaar and T. Rothengatter.1991. Divided attention in experienced young and older drivers: lane tracking and visual analysis in a dynamic driving simulator. Hum Factors 33(5):573–582.

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Brown, N.C. 1936. Logging and Transportation – The Principles and Methods of Log Transportation in the Untied States and Canada. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, NY. Chapman & Hall Ltd. London, Eng. 327pp.

Brown, T.A. and J. Greenlee. 1995. Private trucking after deregulation: managers perceptions. Transportation Journal 35. 1:5-14.

Bryant, R.C. 1923. Logging – The Principles and General Methods of Operation in the United States. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, NY. Chapman & Hall Ltd. London, Eng. 556pp.

Bulley, B., C. Blair. 2001. Using reduced tire pressure for improved gradeability – a proof of concept trial. In: Proceedings of the International Mountain Logging and 11th Pacific Skyline Symposium 2001: 162-167.

Burnham, A.C. Jr. and B.S. Abrams. 1998. Roadway through the MUTCD: vision and other human factors in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Tucson, AZ: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Co.

California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). 2008 ARB approves the distribution of $221 million of Proposition 1B funding.

Campbell, K. 2002. Estimates of the prevalence and risk of fatigue in fatal accidents involving
medium and heavy trucks. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Cascade Sierra Solutions.

Caterpillar Inc. History.

Chirachavala, T. and D.E. Cleveland. 1985. Causal analysis of accident involvements for the nation’s large trucks and combination vehicles. Transportation Research Record 1047: 56-64.

Clean Air Task Force. 2005. Diesel and health in America; the lingering threat. Boston, Mass. 24pp.

Conway, S. 1976. Logging Practices – Principles of Timber Harvesting Systems. Miller Freeman Pub. Inc. 416pp.

Corsi, T.M. 2005. Motor Carrier Industry Profile: An Update 2004-2005. Office of Research and Analysis. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

Corsi, T.M., J.M. Tuck, and L.L. Gardner. 1981. Owner-operators and the motor-carrier act of 1980. The Logistics and Transportation Review. 18:255-277.

Cover Me Insurance Agency Inc. How truck insurance premiums are determined. Web fact sheet.

Deery, H.A. 1999. Hazard and risk perception among young novice drivers. J Safety Res 30(4):225–236.

Dynes, J. 2008. Kibble & Prentice; providers of Regence Insurance benefits to the WCLA. Data provided upon request for scholarly research.

Eastin, I., I. Ganguly, D. Sasatani and B. Lippke. 2007. Section 3: Economic Contribution. In: The Future of Washington’s Forests and Forest Industries. University of Washington; College of Forest Resources. Seattle, WA. 320pp. plus Appendices. 

Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2008. U.S. Dept of Energy. EIA. U.S. on-highway diesel fuel prices.

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Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2008. Particle pollution and your health.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Smart Way.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2005. Smart Way Transport: Helping the freight industry save fuel, money, and the environment. 2005 Annual Report.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2004. Highway Diesel Progress Review Report. Office of Transportation and Air Quality. EPA420-R-04-004. 85pp.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002. Diesel exhaust in the United States. EPA 420-F-02-048. 

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002. A glance at clean freight strategies: wide-base tires. EPA Green Partnership.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2000. Heavy-duty engine and vehicle standards and highway diesel fuel sulfur control requirements. EPA420-R-00-026.

Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). 2008. Large Truck Fatalities By State 1994-2004.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). 2008. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Retention and Safety. Tech Brief. WA, D.C.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). 2005. U.S. Department of Transportation Issues New Rules Regulating Work and Sleep Schedules for Commercial Truck Drivers New Rules Based on Review of Medical Research and Traffic Safety Data.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). 2003. FMCSA regulatory evaluation, hours of service of drivers; driver rest and sleep for safe operations, RIN2126-AA23.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 2001. Guidelines and recommendations to accommodate older drivers and pedestrians. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Publication FHWA–RD–01–051.

Fox, B., L. Zadecky, T.M. Corsi and R.H. Smith. 2006. Assessing the motor carrier industry and its segments: current and prospective issues, 2006. Prepared for: Analysis Division, Office of Research and Analysis. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

Frear, C., B. Zhao, G. Fu, M. Richardson, S. Chen, and M. Fuchs. 2005. Biomass Inventory and Bioenergy Assessment – An Evaluation of Organic Material Resources for Bioenergy Production in Washington State. Report produced for the WA Dept of Ecology. Olympia, WA. 120pp.  

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Gilroy, R. 2006. Soot-filter performance is key to success of 2007 engines. Transport Topics.

Glaskowsky, N.A. 1986. Effects of deregulation on motor carriers. Eno Foundation for Transportation. Westport, CT.

Global Insight. 2005. The U.S. truck driver shortage: analysis and forecasts. Report to the American Trucking Association.

Gregersen, N.P. 1996. Young drivers’ overestimation of their own skill—An experiment on the relation between training strategy and skill. Accid Anal Prev 28:243–250.

Harris, W. and R.R. Mackie. 1972. A study of the relationships among fatigue, hours of service, and safety operations of truck and bus drivers. Human Factors Research, Goleta, California.

Hall, T. 2007-2008. Personal communication. Ted Hall is the Sales Representative for Kenworth Northwest Inc. Sea Tac, WA.

Ham, R. 2008. Personal communication. Rick ham is Vice President of Cummins Northwest, LLC. Renton, WA.

Hanowski, R.J., J.S. Hickman, W.W. Wierwille and A. Keisler. 2007. A descriptive analysis of light vehicle–heavy vehicle interactions using in situ driving data. Accident Analysis & Prevention. Vol. 39. 1:169-179.

Hofer, W. 2008. Personal communication. Wayne Hofer is the Truck Engine Business Manager for the NC Power Systems Co., a division of NC Machinery Inc. Sales data provided upon request for scholarly research.
Holland, C.A., P.M.A. Rabbitt. 1994. The problems of being an older driver: comparing the perceptions of an expert group and older drivers. Appl Ergonom 25(1):17–27.

Ince, P.J., X. Li, M. Zhou, J. Buongiorno, and M.R. Reuter. 2001. United States paper, paperboard, and market pulp capacity trends by process and location, 1970–2000. Res. Pap. FPL-RP-602. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 36 p.

Irwin, G. 2008. Personal communication. Gary Irwin is the Regional Sales Representative for the Mattei Insurance Services.

Jones, I.S. and H.S. Stein. 1987. Effect of driver hours of service on tractor-trailer crash involvement. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Washington, D.C.

Jonah, B.A. 1986. Accident risk and risk-taking behavior among young drivers.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 18. No. 4: 255-271.

Kelsey, S. and J. Murphy. 2008. Personal communication. Scot Kelsey is Fleet Account Manager and Jim Murphy is Regional Director with the Michelin Tire Company. Woodenville, WA.

Kenworth Truck Company.

Knappp, F.M., 1921. Motor Trucking Methods. University of Washington Bulletin: Engineering Experiment Station Series. Bulletin No. 12.

Laden, F., J.E. Hart, T.J. Smith, M.E. Davis and E. Garshick. 2007. cause-specific mortality in the unionized U.S. trucking industry. Env Health Pers. Vol. 115. 8:1192-1196.

Lin, T-Z., P.P. Jovanis, and C.Z. Yang. 1993. Modeling the effect of driver service hours on motor carrier accident risk using time dependent logistical regression. ITS-Davis. Transportation Research Record 1407: 1-10.

Lockhart, R. and D. Wallace. 2006. Waiting for the age bubble to burst. Washington State Employment Security Department (WSESD). Work Force Explorer.

MassieD.L., D. Blower, K.L. Campbell. 1997. Short-haul trucks and driver fatigue. Report to U.S. Dept of Trans., Fed. Highway Admin., Office of Motor Carriers. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Fed. Highway Admin. Pub. No. FHWA-MC-98-016. 50pp.

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McMullen, B.S. and L.R. Stanley. 1988. The impact of deregulation on the production structure of the motor carrier industry. Economic Inquiry 26. 2:299-316. 

Milham, S. 1997. Occupational Mortality in Washington State. Order No. 00913725. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Washington State Department of Health. Olympia, WA.

Miller, N. 2007-2008. Personal Communication. Norm Miller is the Director of the Log Truckers Conference; Washington Trucking Assns. Inc. Federal Way, WA.
Moore, T.G. 1978. The beneficiaries of trucking regulation. Journal of Law and Economics. 21:327-43.
Murray, L.T.Jr. 1948. A Comparative Study of Railroad and Truck Operation of the St. Regis paper Company West Fork Logging Division. Masters Thesis. University of Washington. Seattle, WA. 71pp.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 2003. Work-related roadway crashes – challenges and opportunities for prevention. NIOSH Pub. No. 2003-119.

National Safety Council (NSC). 2006. Estimating costs of unintentional injuries 2005. Itasca, IL.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2006. Traffic Safety Facts 2005: A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System. Washington, D.C.: US Dept of Transportation.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2004. Traffic safety facts, 2003. Report no. DOT HS-809-620. Washington, D.C.: US Dept of Transportation.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 2000. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems; Controls and Displays.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). 1993. Addressing the safety issues related to younger and older drivers. Office of Program Development and Evaluation Traffic Safety Programs. Washington, D.C.: US Dept of Transportation.

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). 1995. Factors that affect fatigue in heavy truck accidents. NTSB/SS-95/01.

Obringer, L.A. How self-inflating tires work.

Ogburn, M.J. and L.A. Ramroth. Not Dated. Truck Efficiency and GHG Reduction Opportunities in the Canadian Truck Fleet. Rocky Mountain Institute.
Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT). 2007. Motor Carrier Applications Development. International Pro-Rate System.  Provided upon request for scholarly research.

Oregon History Project. 

Oregon Trucking Association. Safety & Compliance > Stopping Distances.

Orris, P., S. Bechanan, A. Smiley, D. Davis, D. Dinges, and G. Bergoffen. 2005. Literature Review on Health and Fatigue Issues Associated with Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Hours of Service. Transportation Research Board. Commericail Truck  and Bus Safety Synthesis Program, Synthesis 9.

Peoples J. and M. Peteraf. 1999. The effects of regulatory reform on company drivers and owner operators in the for-hire and private sectors. Transportation Journal 38. 3:5.

Perez-Garcia, J. 2007. Forest products use of roadways and transload facilities in Washington. Report to the WSDOT. Seattle, WA. 20pp.

Peterbuilt Motor Company.

Shankar, V., F.L. Mannering and W. Barfield. 1996. Statistical analysis of accident severity in rural highways. Accident Analysis and Prevention. Vol. 28. No. 3: 391-401.

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Schiess, P. 2006. Personal communication. Dr. Peter Schiess is a professor of forest engineering at the University of Washington, College of Forest Resources. Seattle, WA.

Smith, D. 2008. Personal communication. Doug Smith is the Vice President of Purchasing for the Les Schwab Warehouse Center. Prineville, OR.

Steenland, K., J. Deddens and L. Stayner. 1998. Diesel exhaust and lung cancer in the trucking industry: exposure-response analysis and risk assessment. Am. J. of Ind. Med. 34:220-228.
Stelmach, G.E. and A. Nahom. 1992. Cognitive-motor abilities of the elderly driver. Hum Factors 34(1):53–65.

Sturos, J.A., D.B. Brumm and A. Lehto. 1995. Performance of a Logging Truck with a Central Tire Inflation System. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Forest Service. North Central Forest Experiment Station. Res. Paper NC-322.

Stuster, J. 1999. The Unsafe Driving Acts of Motorists in the Vicinity of Large Trucks, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, WA. D.C.

United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2008. U.S. Dept of Labor. State Occupational Employment and Wage Benefits.

United States Depart of Energy (USDOE). 2006. 21st Century Truck Partnership; Roadmap and Technical Papers. USDOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 21CTP-0003. 78pp.

United States General Accounting Office (GAO). 1991. Freight Trucking; Promising Approach for Predicting Carriers’ Safety Risks. GAO/PEMD-91-13. Report to Congress. WA, D.C. 91pp.

United States Government (U.S.). Motor Carrier Legislation. WA., D.C.
1935. Motor Carrier Act of 1935. P.L. 74-255, 49 Stat. 543.
1980. Motor Carrier Regulatory Reform and Modernization Act of 1980, P.L. 96-296, 94 Stat. 793, 49 U.S.C. § 10101.
1991. Motor Carrier Act of 1991, P.L. 101-240, Title IV, 105 Stat. 2140.
1994. The Federal Aviation Act of 1994. 103 P.L.: 305; 108 Stat. 1569.
1995. The Interstate Commerce Commission Termination Act of 1995. P.L. 104–8, 109 Stat. 803.

Van Dongen, H.P.A., G. Maislin, J.M. Mullington, and D.F. Dinges. 2003. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral function and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep. 26:117-126.

Van Tassel, A.J., D.W. Bluestone. 1940. Mechanization in the Lumber Industry; A Study of Technology in Relation to Resources and Employment Opportunity. Work Projects Administration, National Research Project. Rpt. No. M-5. Philadelphia, PA. 201pp.

Wang, J.S., R.R. Knipling and L.J. Blincoe. 1999. The dimensions of motor vehicle crash risk, J. Transport. Stat. 2:1.

Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDOE). 2006. Diesel Particulate Emission Reduction Strategy for Washington State.  Pub. No. 06-02-022.

Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I). 2008. Fatality Data Summaries. Olympia, WA.

Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I). 2007. Risk code 5003 work-related accident data. Olympia, WA. Provided upon request for scholarly research.

Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I). 2007. State Fund Accepted claims 1997 to 2005, Risk Classes 5003-01 Log hauling by contractor & 5003-02 Log truck drivers, N.O.C. Olympia, WA. Provided upon request for scholarly research.

Washington State Department of Licensing (WSDOL) and Washington Department of Transportation (WSDOT). 2007. Registration data for Washington log trucks FY96-FY06.  Olympia, WA. Provided upon request for scholarly research.

Washington Department of Revenue. (WSDOR). 2008. Tax information web page.

Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). 2008. Annual Traffic Reports. Olympia, WA.

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Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). 2007. 2006 Washington State Collision Data Summary Statewide – All Roads. Olympia, WA.

Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) and Washington State Patrol (WSP). 2008.  Log Truck Accident Data Report 2002 – 2007. Olympia, WA. Provided upon request for scholarly research.

Washington State Office of Financial Management (WSOFM). 2007. 2007 Population Trends. WSOFM Forecasting Division. Olympia, WA.

Washington State Patrol (WSP). 2007. Washington state’s strategic highway safety plan. Target Zero.

Washington State Patrol (WSP). 1972. Summary of traffic accidents involving logging trucks; 1971. Olympia, WA.

Waterman-Hoey, S. and G. Nothstein. 2006 (Revised 2/12/07). Washington’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Sources and Trends. WA State Dept. of Community, Trade & Economic Development; Energy Policy Division. Olympia, WA.18pp.

Williams, G.W. 1999. The Spruce Production Division. Forest History Today.

Williamson, M. 2008. Personal communication. Williamson Consulting is a forestry firm located in Colville, WA that is engaged in providing services that include oversight of log harvesting and hauling activities for industrial and non-industrial private forestland owners in northeastern Washington. 

Zaebst, D.D., D.E. Clapp, L.M. Blake, D.A. Marlow, K. Steenland, R.W. Hornung,
D. Scheutzle and J. Butler. 1991. Quantitative Determination of Trucking Industry
Workers Exposures to Diesel Exhaust Particles. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 52:529-541.

Image References

Images have been used with permission for non-commercial scholarly publication only.


Early log truck with single steer tire, chain drive and wooden trailer around 1918 (University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections, UW8462).

Early log truck with single steer tire, chain drive and wooden trailer around 1918 (University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections, UW8462).

Associated Oregon Loggers, Salem, OR.

Coos Historical and Maritime Museum, #982-177, North Bend, OR.

Forks Timber Museum, Forks,WA.

Log Trucker Magazine, Chehalis, WA.

Mason, C.L., Seattle, WA.

Oregon Historical Society, #CN017408, Portland, OR.

Pacific County Historical Society, South, Bend, WA.

ProFab Manufacturing Inc., Chemainus, B.C.

Spoelstra, T., Forks, WA.

University of Washington, Special Collections, #UW8462, Seattle, WA.

Whit-Log Inc., Wilbur, OR.

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