Search the RTI Website
 
Click to go to the Precision Forestry Cooperative website
Click to go to the RTI Home page
Click to go to the About RTI page
Click to go to the RTI Projects page
Click to go to the RTI Publications page
Click to go to the RTI Tools page
Click to go to the RTI Geographic Information Systems page
Click to go to the RTI Streaming Video Directory
Click to go to the RTI Training page
Click to go to the RTI Contacts page
Click to go to the RTI Image Archive
Click to go to the RTI Site Map
Click to go to the RTI Links page


Chapter 3.     Stacked Roundwood, Preservative-Treated
Products, and Construction Logs

Chapter 3. Table of Content

Stacked Roundwood

      Cord Measure

           • Standard rough cord

            •Long cord

            •The unit

           • Face cord

            •Volume of solid wood in a cord

      Stere Measure

      Conversions Between Cords and Steres

      Cord and Stere Weight

Preservative-Treated Products

         Pole Measurement and Specifications

            •Dry, finished poles

            •Barky pole stock

      Pole Volume

           • AWPA methods

            •Manufacturers' volume tables by pole class

      Pole Weights

           • Estimating weight density

            •Manufacturers' pole shipping weight tables

        Piling Measurement and Specifications

            •Finished piles

            •Barky piling stock

      Piling Volume

      Piling Weights

      Conversion of Pole and Piling Measures to Metric Units

      Ties

      Lumber

Construction Logs




      Chapter 3. Stacked Roundwood, Preservative-Treated Products, and Construction Logs


Stacked Roundwood

Fuelwood and pulpwood are often sold in units represented by stacked piles with the roundwood split or unsplit, and with or without bark. The two basic volumetric units are the cord and the stere, which are defined below. In many places these unit measurements are being replaced by the weight scaling methods discussed in Chapter 2 for logs.

Cord Measure

Standard Rough Cord.     A standard rough cord occupies 128 gross cubic feet (3.62 cubic meters) usually comprising 4 foot long split or unsplit roundwood, generally with bark, stacked in a pile 4 feet high and 8 feet long. In some situations, stacks of longer pieces (such as 8 foot lengths) are estimated in terms of standard rough cords.

Long Cord.     A long cord is made up of 5 foot long pieces in a stack 4 feet high and 8 feet long, occupying 160 gross cubic feet (4.53 cubic meters). The long cord is 1.25 times greater than the standard cord and is often used in the southern United States.

The  Unit.     The long cord is sometimes referred to as a unit. In some cases, this term refers to a cord comprising pieces 5' 3" long in a 4 foot high by 8 foot stack occupying 168 gross cubic feet (4.76 cubic meters).

Face Cord.     This term is sometimes used for firewood and refers to stove-length pieces in a 4 foot high by 8 foot stack. With 16 inch long pieces, a face cord occupies one-third the gross space (42.3 cubic feet) of a standard rough cord. With 24 inch long pieces, it occupies half the gross space (64 cubic feet) of a standard rough cord.

Volume of Solid Wood in a Cord.     These cord measures are not a very accurate indication of the actual solid wood volume, because the amount of air space occupied varies with the diameter, length, bark thickness, and condition of the pieces. Condition refers to crookedness as well as surface roughness caused by limbs.

        Table 3-1 shows that a standard cord of smooth, straight barky softwood bolts from the Great Lakes region ranged from 90 to 100 cubic feet when the midbolt diameter ranged from less than 6 to more than 12 inches (USFS 1935). The range for hard­woods was from 85 to 98 cubic feet, and use of 8 foot rather than 4 foot bolts reduced these figures by 2 to 3 cubic feet. When bolts were crooked, rough, and knotty, volume per cord was reduced by about 20 cubic feet.

        In practice, an average conversion factor of 85 cubic feet (2.41 cubic meters) of wood per standard rough cord is often assumed. The USFS assessment assumes 79.2 cubic feet per cord (Appendix 2). Due
to the factors affecting actual volume, the range around this average can easily be plus or minus 20 cubic feet. Table 3-2 shows the effect of species (bark thickness) and diameter on solid content of a standard rough cord (Worthington and Twerdal 1950). Cubic meter equivalents have been added by the author. The 85 cubic feet per cord factor is reached at 11 inches in hemlock and 15 inches in Douglas-fir. If bolts in a cord have been debarked, the values under the total column give a reasonable approximation of the solid wood content.

Stere Measure

        Countries on the metric system use the stere as the standard measure for stacked roundwood. A stere is a space that is one meter on a side, hence one gross cubic meter (35.315 cubic feet, 0.276 standard rough cord). The term stere is used to differentiate this gross space from a solid cubic meter of wood. In some places the term loose cubic meter is used rather than the term stere.

        A rule of thumb in Europe is that the solid wood content of a stere of pulpwood is 0.65 cubic meters (23.0 cubic feet for a rough (with bark) stere and 0.75 cubic meters(26.5 cubic feet) for a debarked stere (Jennings 1965). Table 3-1 shows somewhat different conversions and gives an indication of the effect of species and length.


Table 3-1. Solid content of barky standard cord and stere.


 

Midbolt diameter:

15 cm

 

15 cm to 30 cm

 

30 cm

 
   

 6 in

 

6 in to 12 in

 

>12 in

 
 

 

Kind of bolt

Bolt length:

1.2 m

2.4 m

 

1.2 m

2.4 m

 

1.2 m

2.4 m

 
   

4 ft

8 ft

 

4 ft

8 ft

 

4 ft

8 ft

 

 

Softwoods

                   
                     

Straight

                   
                     

Smooth

(m3/stere)

   0.70

   0.69

 

   0.74

   0.73

 

      0.78

   0.77

 
 

(ft3/cord)

90

88

 

95

93

 

 100

98

 
                     

Slightly rough

(m3/stere)

   0.66

   0.63

 

   0.71

   0.69

 

      0.75

   0.73

 

and knotty

(ft3/cord)

84

80

 

91

88

 

   96

94

 
                     

Not Straight

                   
                     

Slightly crooked

(m3/stere)

   0.63

   0.59

 

   0.69

   0.66

 

      0.73

   0.71

 

and rough

(ft3/cord)

80

76

 

88

84

 

   93

91

 
                     

Crooked, rough,

(m3/stere)

   0.55

   0.51

 

   0.62

   0.59

 

      0.65

   0.63

 

and knotty

(ft3/cord)

70

65

 

79

75

 

   83

80

 
                     

Hardwoods

                   
                     

Straight

                   
                     

Smooth

(m3/stere)

   0.66

   0.64

 

   0.71

   0.69

 

      0.77

   0.74

 
 

(ft3/cord)

85

82

 

91

88

 

   98

95

 
                     

Slightly rough

(m3/stere)

   0.61

   0.57

 

   0.66

   0.64

 

      0.72

   0.70

 

and knotty

(ft3/cord)

78

73

 

85

82

 

   92

90

 
                     

Not Straight

                   
                     

Slightly crooked

(m3/stere)

   0.59

   0.55

 

   0.64

   0.62

 

      0.70

   0.67

 

and rough

(ft3/cord)

75

70

 

82

79

 

   89

86

 
                     

Crooked, rough,

(m3/stere)

   0.52

   0.47

 

   0.59

   0.55

 

      0.61

   0.59

 

and knotty

(ft3/cord)

67

60

 

75

70

 

   78

75

 

Source: Adapted from USFS (1935) by Flann (1962). Original data in Imperial units; metric values added by the author.



Conversions Between Cords and Steres

        Table 3-3 summarizes conversions using the 85 ft3/cord and European solid contents of steres. FAO, in its Yearbook of Forest Products, uses the gross cubic volumes (128 ft3/cord and 1 m3/stere).

Cord and Stere Weight

        Table 3-2 also presents the green weight per cord for Douglas-fir and hemlock. In addition to factors affecting the solid volume of a cord, weight depends on moisture content and species specific gravity. Many organizations have shifted to weight scaling (see Chapter 2, pp. 34-35) to develop local weight factors to account for species and seasonal effects. Since many purchasers are not interested in bark, either the weight factors or the price paid may be adjusted for it.

        Chapter 1 (p. 10) presents procedures for esti­mating the weight of a cord or stere based on the solid wood volume, species specific gravity, and moisture content. The example also illustrates how bark weight can be included or excluded.

Preservative-Treated Products

Preservative treatments are often given to wood to enhance durability, fire retardant ability, and so forth. The major categories are round products such as poles and pilings and sawn products such as railroad ties and lumber treated for decking, sills, and similar applications. The reader should obtain a current copy of the American Wood-Preservers' Association Standards, which has information on various preservatives and retention rates in differ­ent applications. Poles and pilings are round structural members which require processing that includes debarking, peeling to desired shape, seasoning, and usually treatment with preserva­tives. They are relatively straight, free of large knots, and have growth rate (rings per inch) requirements for wood close to their surface. Finished products are commonly sold by the piece.


Table 3-2.  Solid volume and weight of stacked cords of 8 foot pulpwood in western Washington.

Source: Worthington and Twerdal (1950).

 

Average

                 
 

midbolt

   

Average

 
 

diameter

 

Average solid cubic volume

green

 
 

inside bark

 

Total

Solid wood

Bark

weight

 
 

(inches)

 

(ft3)

(m3)

(ft3)

(m3)

(ft3)

(m3)

(lb)

 
 

Douglas-fir (with bark)

 
 

  8

 

  92

2.60

81

2.29

11

0.31

4,350

 
 

  9

 

  92

2.60

81

2.29

11

0.31

4,350

 
 

10

 

  92

2.60

82

2.32

10

0.28

4,450

 
 

11

 

  92

2.60

82

2.32

10

0.28

4,450

 
 

12

 

  92

2.60

82

2.32

10

0.28

4,450

 
 

13

 

  93

2.63

83

2.35

10

0.28

4,500

 
 

14

 

  94

2.66

84

2.38

10

0.28

4,550

 
 

15

 

  95

2.69

85

2.41

10

0.28

4,600

 
 

16

 

  96

2.72

86

2.44

10

0.28

4,650

 
 

17

 

  99

2.80

88

2.49

11

0.31

4,750

 
 

18

 

100

2.83

89

2.52

11

0.31

4,800

 
 

19

 

101

2.86

90

2.55

11

0.31

4,850

 
 

20

 

103

2.92

91

2.58

12

0.34

5,000

 
 

Hemlock (with bark)

 
 

  8

 

  91

2.58

81

2.29

10

0.28

4,850

 
 

  9

 

  92

2.60

82

2.32

10

0.28

4,900

 
 

10

 

  94

2.66

84

2.38

10

0.28

5,050

 
 

11

 

  95

2.69

85

2.41

10

0.28

5,100

 
 

12

 

  96

2.72

86

2.44

10

0.28

5,150

 
 

13

 

  97

2.75

87

2.46

10

0.28

5,200

 
 

14

 

  99

2.80

88

2.49

11

0.31

5,300

 
 

15

 

100

2.83

89

2.52

11

0.31

5,350

 
 

16

 

100

2.83

89

2.52

11

0.31

5,350

 

Note: Values may not sum due to rounding.

Table 3-3.  Cordwood conversion factors.

       

Standard

     
   

ft3

m3

cord,

Stere,

Stere,

 
   

SWE

SWE

rough

rough

debarked

 
 
 

Standard cord, rough

85.0

2.41

1

3.70

3.21

 
 

Stere, rough

23.0

0.65

0.27

1

0.87

 
 

Stere, debarked

26.5

0.75

0.31

1.15

1

 

Source: Calculated by the author.                                 SWE  =  solid wood equivalent.


Pole Measurement and Specifications

Dry, Finished Poles.     Poles are placed in classes depending on minimum circumference at the top, minimum circumference 6 feet from the bottom (butt), and species. Table 3-4 presents specifications for species groups that include Douglas-fir and western redcedar; specifications for other species groups are available in the ANSI standard for poles (ANSI 1992).

        Classification of poles is based on load-bearing capacity, and the system is defined so a pole of given length and class has essentially the same load-bearing capacity regardless of species. This is why, for example, a 50 foot, class 1 Douglas-fir pole has a smaller circumference 6 feet from the butt than western redcedar (45.0 versus 49.5 inches). Douglas-fir is a stronger species and has less taper.

        Since poles are measured for classification while in the green condition, some shrinkage (about 2%) will occur due to seasoning by the manufacturer or while in service. This shrinkage is taken into account when classifying poles using dry meas-urements.

        Poles used for power transmission lines are from 55 to 125 feet long. Power distribution poles range from 30 to 50 feet. Those used for pole buildings are generally shorter than 30 feet.

Barky Pole Stock.     Pole manufacturers translate the finished pole specifications into tables that can be used by foresters and loggers in assessing the suitability of a tree for pole manufacture. Table 3-5 is an example for Douglas-fir. Each manufacturer has its own pole stock tables that reflect its  experience with the bark thickness and taper of a species obtained from a given region.

        For example, Table 3-4 shows that a 50 foot, class 1 pole must have a minimum top circumference of 27 inches and a minimum circumference 6 feet from the butt of 45 inches. Table 3-5 shows that this has been translated into a 9 inch minimum top diameter inside bark and a 53 inch minimum outside bark circumference 6 feet from the butt.

Pole Volume

AWPA Methods.     Two methods given in Standard F3 of the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA 1992) for calculating cubic foot volume of individual poles are:

        V = 3 L (Cm / π)2 0.001818                            (1)

        V = 0.001818 L (D2 + d2 + Dd) f   (2)

where

        V         =      volume (ft3)

        π          =      3.14159

        Cm       =      midlength circumference,in inches

        D, d     =      butt and top diameters, in inches

        L          =      length, in feet

        f           =      correction     =  0.82 oak piles

                                                   =  0.93 southern pine piles

                                                   =  0.95 southern pine, red

                                                        pine poles

                                                   =  1.0 otherwise

        Formula 1 is the AWPA official method except for Douglas-fir, for which either method can be used. AWPA Standard F3 contains volume tables based on both formulas. Table 3-6 presents cubic feet per lineal foot factors based on Formula 2 when the correction f in the formula is set to 1.0. See Example 1. (In examples and AWPA tables, the effect of bark thickness is ignored.)

Manufacturers' Volume Tables by Pole Class.      Based on the average pole circumferences in each class and length, manufacturers publish their own tables of pole volumes. Table 3-7 presents cubic foot volume of average poles for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Differences between manufac­turers' tables are small, reflecting minor differences in average circumferences within a class, and practices of rounding numeric values.



Example  1

Consider a 25 foot, class 1 pole that has a minimum top diameter inside bark (d) of 9 inches and mini­mum circumference outside bark of 38.5 inches located 6 feet from the butt (C6). To estimate the volume of a pole having these minimum class 1 dimensions:

Formula 1

First, estimate Cm from the pole taper as follows:

 Cm = [(C6 – π d) / (L – 6)] L / 2 + π d = [(38.5 – 3.14159 * 9)

        / (25 –  6)] 25 / 2 + 3.14159 * 9 = 35.0.

Then,  V = 3 L (Cm / π)2 0.001818 = 3 * 25 (35.0 /
        3.14159)2 0.001818 = 16.9 ft3.

The AWPA table has a value of 16.8 ft3.

Formula 2

First, estimate the butt end diameter (D) from pole taper:

  D = [(C6 / π – d) / (L –  6)] L + d  =  [(38.5 / 3.14159 – 9) /

        (25 –  6)] 25 + 9 = 13 inches.

Then, V = 0.001818 L (D2 + d2 + Dd)  =  0.001818 * 25                 (132 + 92 + 13 * 9) = 16.7 ft3.

Alternatively, Table 3-6 has a cubic foot/lineal foot factor of 0.667 for a pole with a large end diameter of 13 inches and a small end diameter of 9 inches; multiplying by length yields 16.7 ft3

Pole Weights

Factors influencing pole weight are: (1) pole volume; (2) specific gravity of species (Table 1-1); (3) moisture content of pole (MCod of a dry pole is about 25%); and (4) preservative type and reten­tion. The latter three are combined to give the weight density (pounds per cubic foot) of a pole, which, multiplied by pole cubic volume, estimates shipping weight.

Estimating Weight Density (lb/ft3).     In the absence of actual manufacturers' data, weight density of a treated pole can be approximated by methods outlined in Chapter 1. Using Douglas-fir as an example, SGg  =  0.45, hence Table 1-2 yields about 35.1 lb/ft3 at MCod = 25%. Assuming a pre­servative retention of 12 lb/ft3 brings the pole weight density to 47.1 lb/ft3. Multiplying by the volume of a pole in Table 3-7 yields an estimate of its shipping weight. The AWPA standard contains information on retention of various preservatives.

Manufacturers' Pole Shipping Weight Tables.     Manufacturers carefully monitor retention rates and shipping weights of their products. For a given pole size and treatment weight, tables of different manufacturers are quite similar. However, weight tables differ substantially according to species and type of treatment. Illustrative weight densities are shown below for treatments of Douglas-fir and western redcedar (source: L. D. McFarland Company) with pentachlorophenol or ACZA.

   

Douglas-fir
Treatment 
  Density  ( lb/ft3)

 0.45 penta
46
0.50 penta
48
0.60 penta
50
0.6 ACZA
58

 


Western  redcedar
Treatment 
Density  ( lb/ft3)

Full length, 0.80 penta
32
Butt only, 1.00 penta 
28
Heavy, full length, 1.25 penta 
33

These densities assume a moisture content of 25%.

        These factors, multiplied by cubic foot volumes in Table 3-7, result in manufacturers' tables of shipping weights. For example, a 50 foot, class 1 Douglas-fir pole (47.0 ft3) has a shipping weight of 2,162 pounds when treated with 0.45 penta and 2,350 pounds when treated with 0.60 penta.

Piling Measurement and Specifications

        Conceptually, the procedures for piling are very similar to those for poles. However, pilings have a different specification system under ASTM D25-91 (ASTM 1991).

Finished Piles.     The original classification for piling listed classes A, B, and C, which gave the minimum circumference at the top and minimum and maximum circumference 3 feet from the butt according to species group and lengths. Table 3-8 presents these specifications. Class C is relatively uncommon in practice.



Table 3-5. Dimensions of barky Douglas-fir pole stock.

 

Class:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

 
 

Minimum
diameter inside
bark (inches):



9.0



8.5



8.0



7.0



6.5



6.0



5.0

 
 

Length of
pole (feet)

Minimum circumference 6 feet from butt,
outside bark
a (inches)

 
 

          25

        39

        37

        35

          33

          31

          28

          27

 
 

          30

        42

        40

        38

          35

          33

          30

          29

 
 

          35

        45

        43

        40

          38

          35

          33

          31

 
 

          40

        48

        46

        43

          40

          37

     
 

          45

        50

        48

        45

          42

          39

     
 

          50

        53

        49

        45

          43

       
 

          55

        54

        51

        48

         
 

          60

        56

        53

        49

         
 

          65

        57

        54

        51

         
 

          70

        59

        56

        53

         
 

          75

        62

        58

        54

         
 

          80

        63

        59

        55

         
 

          85

        65

        61

        57

         
 

          90

        66

        62

           
 

          95

        67

        63

           
 

        100

        69

        65

           
 

Source: L. D. McFarland Company, unpublished.

aAllows for average bark. Heavy bark may reduce poles one class.  


        A different, more detailed classification has tables for two species groups:  southern yellow pine and Douglas-fir plus other species (ASTM D25-91). For each species group, there is one table that gives minimum top circumferences according to length and required minimum circumference 3 feet from the butt. A second table gives minimum circumferences 3 feet from the butt according to length and required minimum top circumference.

Barky Piling Stock.     Manufacturers translate the finished piling specifications into minimum requirements that adjust for bark thickness and taper. These are then used by foresters and loggers in assessing the suitability of a tree for piling. Table 3-9 is an example for Douglas-fir.

Piling Volume

        Methods are the same as discussed for poles. Table 3-6 gives cubic foot volume per lineal foot of various sizes of peeled piles. Using AWPA methods and Table 3-10, average cubic foot volumes are obtained for various lengths in each piling class.

Piling Weights

        The same procedure discussed for poles can be applied. Treated Douglas-fir piling generally contains 17 pounds of preservative per cubic foot of wood for land-based use and 20 pounds for saltwater use. Moisture content within 2 inches of the surface is about MCod = 25%. Table 3-10 gives average weight factors for clear, peeled, untreated Douglas-fir piles. Adding the preservative retention per cubic foot and multiplying by the cubic foot volume yields an estimate of shipping weight.

Table 3-7. Average cubic foot volume of poles by pole class and length.

Douglas-fir

Class

 
 
 

Length   (ft)


H6


H5


H4


H3


H2


H1


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10

 

 20

           

12.9

10.3

8.5

7.2

6.0

5.2

4.3

4.8

3.7

2.9

 25

           

18.0

14.8

12.3

10.4

8.9

7.7

6.3

7.1

5.3

4.3

 30

           

23.3

19.7

16.8

14.3

12.0

10.0

8.3

7.3

6.8

 

 35

       

37.5

34.5

28.5

24.4

21.0

18.3

15.7

13.5

11.8

     

 40

     

53.4

42.5

40.2

34.3

29.5

25.5

22.2

19.3

16.8

       

 45

     

63.2

54.9

47.5

40.4

34.8

30.3

26.3

23.2

20.7

       

 50

98.0

89.0

79.7

73.0

63.2

59.9

47.0

40.3

35.0

30.7

           

 55

109.8

101.5

90.7

84.5

73.0

63.2

54.4

46.7

40.0

35.2

           

 60

129.4

117.6

106.3

96.6

86.4

76.8

62.8

53.5

45.7

39.8

           

 65

145.6

132.5

120.0

108.1

96.9

86.2

73.0

60.8

51.2

44.7

           

 70

162.5

148.3

134.5

121.5

107.9

96.2

89.0

68.8

57.2

49.7

           

 75

180.4

164.9

148.4

134.2

120.8

106.8

94.5

77.0

63.8

54.9

           

 80

197.8

180.8

164.6

147.6

133.1

117.9

106.7

86.2

70.7

60.3

           

 85

217.5

197.4

179.9

161.7

145.9

129.5

120.0

95.8

78.2

             

 90

236.3

216.6

195.6

178.1

157.8

140.3

135.7

106.8

86.0

             

 95

255.9

234.8

212.6

191.7

171.8

153.0

145.5

115.1

92.9

             

100

276.0

251.6

230.2

205.7

184.6

164.5

159.1

125.1

100.8

             

105

297.1

271.1

246.0

222.3

199.8

178.4

172.2

135.1

108.5

             

110

319.0

291.4

264.8

239.5

213.0

190.9

185.8

145.5

116.6

             

115

341.7

312.3

281.8

255.2

227.6

203.8

197.3

173.3

138.6

             

120

362.3

331.4

301.9

271.1

242.2

217.1

212.2

186.8

149.4

             

125

386.3

351.0

320.0

287.6

259.7

240.8

233.9

210.8

168.6

             
 

Western redcedar

Class

 
 
 

Length
(ft)


H6


H5


H4


H3


H2


H1


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10

 
 

  20

           

14.2

11.1

9.2

7.7

6.5

5.5

5.2

4.4

3.9

3.1

 

  25

           

17.3

15.3

13.4

11.5

10.0

8.7

7.4

6.9

6.0

4.0

 

  30

           

23.1

20.2

17.7

15.2

13.4

11.6

10.0

9.0

7.6

   

  35

       

42.4

38.2

29.4

25.1

22.2

19.4

17.1

15.0

13.4

       

  40

   

60.4

55.2

51.6

46.8

36.1

31.8

27.4

23.9

21.3

19.0

         

  45

83.7

79.2

72.5

66.2

60.3

56.7

43.2

37.9

33.1

28.8

25.8

           

  50

98.5

90.5

83.0

76.0

69.5

65.0

51.1

44.8

38.9

33.9

29.9

           

  55

114.4

105.6

97.4

89.1

81.4

74.3

59.2

51.8

45.0

39.8

             

  60

128.4

118.8

109.2

100.2

91.8

83.4

67.6

58.9

51.3

46.0

             

  65

146.9

135.9

125.5

115.7

102.7

93.6

76.1

66.5

57.9

51.8

             

  70

162.4

150.5

139.3

128.1

117.6

107.8

85.7

74.4

65.2

58.6

             

  75

178.5

165.8

153.8

141.8

129.8

119.3

93.9

83.1

72.7

               

  80

200.8

181.6

168.0

155.2

143.2

127.2

114.7

96.8

83.1

               

  85

218.5

203.2

183.6

170.0

156.4

139.4

121.9

106.8

91.9

               

  90

237.6

221.4

199.8

185.4

171.0

152.1

133.9

117.6

101.5

               

  95

259.4

242.3

225.2

203.3

188.1

166.3

150.5

130.6

112.9

               

100

277.0

259.0

234.0

218.0

195.0

185.0

180.0

158.0

138.7

               

105

298.2

278.3

253.0

235.2

211.0

205.5

200.0

171.8

152.4

               

110

320.1

299.2

271.7

253.0

227.7

222.5

217.7

187.1

166.1

               

115

342.7

320.9

292.1

271.4

244.6

241.0

237.7

202.4

179.8

               

120

366.0

343.2

312.0

283.2

262.8

259.0

247.4

215.0

                 
 

Source: L. D. McFarland Company, unpublished.


Table 3-8.  Circumferences of timber piles: Douglas-fir, hemlock, larch, pine, spruce, or tamarack.

 

Class A

Class B

Class C

 
 
 

3 ft from butt

Tip

3 ft from butt

Tip

3 ft from butt

Tip

 

Length

 Min.

 Max.

 Min.

 Min.

 Max.

 Min.

 Min.

 Max.

 Min.

 

(ft)

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

 

< 40

44

57

28

38

63

25

38

63

25

 

40-50 incl

44

57

28

38

63

22

38

63

19

 

55-70 incl

44

57

25

41

63

22

38

63

19

 

75-90 incl

44

63

22

41

63

19

38

63

19

 

> 90

44

63

19

41

63

16

38

63

16

 

Source: ASTM D25-58 (ASTM 1958).

Table 3-9.  Dimensions of barky Douglas-fir piling stock.

 

Class A

Class B

 
 
 
 

Min. circumference

Min. top

Min. circumference

Min. top

 
 

up 3 ft from butt

diameter

up 3 ft from butt

diameter

 

Length

outside bark

inside bark

outside bark

inside bark

 

(ft)

(in)

(in)

(in)

(in)

 

Under 40

52

9.5

45.5

8.5

 

40-52

52

9.5

45.5

7.5

 

53-72

52

8.5

48.5

7.5

 

73-92

52

7.5

48.5

6.5

 

Over 92

52

6.5

48.5

5.5

 

Source:  L. D. McFarland Company, unpublished.

Table 3-10.  Average volume and weight density of Douglas-fir piles.

   

Volume (ft3)

Density (lb/ft3), untreated

 
 

Length

 
 

(ft)

Class A

Class B

Class A

       Class B

 
 

20

21.4

15.7

     
 

25

25.9

18.9

     
 

30

29.9

21.8

     
 

35

33.7

24.4

     
 

40

37.1

26.7

     
 

45

43.5

31.5

     
 

50

46.7

33.6

     
 

55

49.5

38.7

     
 

60

52.1

40.6

40

34

 
 

65

54.5

46.2

40

34

 
 

70

56.6

47.7

43

34

 
 

75

63.3

53.7

36

31

 
 

80

65.2

55.1

40

34

 
 

85

72.3

61.5

39

34

 
 

90

74.0

62.7

44

34

 
 

95

81.7

69.4

40

36

 
 

100

83.1

70.5

42

40

 
 

105

91.2

84.3

44

41

 
 

110

92.4

85.4

46

44

 
 

115

108.9

101.1

49

47

 
 

120

118.4

102.1

52

50

 

Source: L. D. McFarland Company, unpublished.

 

Conversion of Pole and Piling Measures to Metric Units

        Generally, standard conversions of 35.315 ft3/m3  and 2.205 lb/kg (Appendix 1) can be used to convert the pole and pile volume and weights to metric equivalents.

Ties

        Railroad crossties are produced from many hardwood and softwood species from logs at least8 feet long with diameters exceeding 7 inches. These logs are sawn into rectangular cross section pieces that are treated with a pre­servative. There are three basic tie categories, the 8 foot crosstie and the longer switch and bridge ties. According to McCurdy and Case (1989), about two-thirds of all ties produced have a 7 by 10 inch cross section; no other size cross section exceeds 10% of production.

        The volume of a tie in cubic feet is simply the product of the cross section area, converted to square feet, times the length in feet. Board foot volume is estimated from the board foot formula for lumber described in Chapter 4. Weight estimates can be made using methods in Chapter 1 and adding the weight of the appropriate preservative (see p. 44).

        In their study, McCurdy and Case (1989) use average values of 40 BF for a crosstie and 63 BF for switch and bridge ties (Appendix 2). These trans­late to about 3.5 ft3 (0.10 m3) and 5.25 ft3 (0.15 m3 ) respectively.

Lumber

        The procedures described in Chapter 4 should be used in estimating preservative-treated lumber volume. To estimate weight, either obtain shipping weights from the manufacturer or add the retention in lb/ft3 (see AWPA 1992) to the wood weight density based on the species and moisture content (Chapter 1). Multiply the combined lb/ft3 by the cubic foot volume of the product.

Construction Logs

        Construction logs used in log buildings are often milled into a cross section shape that is uniform along the length of the piece. Volume can be obtained by finding the cross section area in square feet and multiplying by the length. Weight estimation uses methods discussed in Chapter 1.

 
School of Environmental and Forest Sciences
USDA Forest Service State & Private Forestry
WSU Cooperative Extension
The Rural Technology Home Page is provided by the College of Forest Resources. For more information, please contact the Rural Technology Initiative, University of Washington Box 352100 Seattle, WA 98195, (206) 543-0827. © 2000-2004, University of Washington, Rural Technology Initiative, including all photographs and images unless otherwise noted. To view the www.ruraltech.org privacy policy, click here.
Last Updated 2/2/2012 6:37:22 PM